Computational fluid dynamics or CFD analysis is one of the main analysis methods used in engineering applications. The origins and foundations of CFD software lie in mankind's efforts to better understand the forces of natural elements such as wind, storms, floods and ocean waves. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a science that, with the aid of digital computers, produces quantitative predictions of fluid flow phenomena based on the conservation laws (conservation of mass, momentum and energy) that govern the motion of fluids. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the analysis of fluid flows using numerical solution methods.
CFD allows the analysis of complex problems involving fluid-fluid, fluid-solid or fluid-gas interaction. Engineering fields where CFD analyses are frequently used are, for example, aerodynamics and hydrodynamics, where quantities such as lift and drag or field properties such as pressures and velocities are obtained. Fluid dynamics is related to physical laws in the form of partial differential equations. Sophisticated CFD solvers transform these laws into algebraic equations and are able to efficiently solve these equations numerically.
CFD simulations can predict, among other things, the fluid motion in bioreactors and are therefore applied, for example, for the prediction of fluid dynamics and mixing time when testing different impeller designs for a bioreactor. Although CFD simulation of fluid dynamics in conjunction with biokinetic models is a powerful tool that provides accurate predictions, its application is limited to offline studies. CFD is applied to a wide range of research and engineering problems in many fields of study and industries, such as aerodynamics and aerospace analysis, meteorological simulation, natural science and environmental engineering, industrial systems design and analysis, biological engineering, fluid flows and heat transfer, and engine and combustion analysis. The fundamental basis of almost all CFD problems is the Navier-Stokes equations, which define many single-phase fluid flows (gas or liquid, but not both).
In a CFD software tool, a mathematical model of the physical case and a numerical method are used to analyse the fluid flow. For this purpose, the biological kinetic equations are solved together with the fluid flow within the CFD simulations. CFD allows prediction of fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, and chemical reactions (explosions) and related phenomena. With the help of CFD software, fluid flow problems are analysed faster than by testing, in more detail, earlier in the design cycle, for less money and with less risk.
By solving the fundamental equations governing fluid flow processes, CFD provides information on important flow characteristics such as pressure loss, flow distribution and mixing rates. The development of CFD and the growth of CFD software applications have been closely linked to the evolution of high-speed computers.